Section 4: Human Resource Management
This section covers Japan’s labor laws and regulations. Topics include recruitment, employment contracts, wages, working hours, work rules, workplace safety, hygiene requirements, resignation and dismissal procedures, and Japan’s social security, health, and pension systems.
4.1 Application of Laws
4.3 Labor Contracts
4.5 Legislation on Working Hours, Breaks, and Days Off
4.6 Work Rules
4.7 Safety and Hygiene
4.8 Resignation and Dismissal
4.9 Japan’s Social Security System
4.2.1 Recruiting Methods
Japan has a government-run employment agency known as "Hello Work" with offices throughout Japan. Hello Work offers free support for people looking for work and companies looking for workers; all industries are covered by the agency. Similarly, some regional public organizations and education institutions such as universities also provide employment services for free. There are also many privately-run employment agencies; these come in several types, including executive search-type agencies, as well as those which build up a database of registered potential employees and employers, and where the agency collects fees on a contingency basis (i.e., when someone from their database is successfully employed with a company). Japan also has a wide range of newspapers, magazines (e.g., job-transfer magazines, industry-specific magazines, etc.), and internet websites through which companies can find employees.
4.2.2 Legislation on Recruitment
As far as labor contracts are concerned, the principle of freedom of contract applies to the hiring of workers, and allows an employer to decide what kinds of workers and how many to hire. There are, however, some restrictions. For instance, under the Equal Employment Opportunities Law, employers must afford equal opportunities regardless of sex when recruiting and hiring workers. For that reason, employers may not specify male or female employees when advertising situations vacant, with the exception of a few specific positions.